Medellin: From the World’s Capital of Murder to the World’s Most Innovative City

Two decades ago, Medellín, Colombia, was notorious as the “Murder Capital of the World,” grappling with extreme violence fueled by drug traffickers, local gangs, and guerrilla forces. The infamous Medellín Cartel, led by Pablo Escobar, played a central role, supplying the majority of cocaine to the U.S. and amassing billions annually. Poverty exacerbated the situation, with illegal hillside settlements becoming hubs for criminal activity.

However, in recent years, Medellín has undergone a remarkable transformation, receiving global recognition for its innovation and urban design. Crime rates have plummeted by 80%, and poverty has decreased by over 96%.

This turnaround is attributed to visionary leadership, innovative public transport like the ‘Metrocable,’ urban infrastructure like outdoor escalators, economic and social programs, and inclusive public-private partnerships. Medellín’s journey from the brink of chaos to a model of urban innovation demonstrates the power of strategic planning, community involvement, and forward-thinking.

A Dark Past

Twenty years ago, Medellín, Colombia’s second-largest city, was infamous as the “Murder Capital of the World.” In 1991, it experienced an average of 16 murders per day. This extreme violence was primarily due to the activities of drug traffickers, local gangs, and guerrilla forces​​. At the heart of this was the Medellín Cartel, led by Pablo Escobar, which at its peak supplied up to 80% of the cocaine in the United States and made $22 to $26 billion annually, in a country where the GDP was about $35 billion​​.

Poverty exacerbated the situation, with up to 70% of Colombians living below the poverty line until the mid or late 1980s. Many of Medellín’s poor resided in illegal settlements on steep hillsides, isolated from basic amenities. These areas became breeding grounds for gangs and their illegal activities​​.

A Remarkable Turnaround

In recent years, Medellín has undergone a dramatic transformation. It has been recognized for its innovation, winning awards such as the Harvard University Veronica Rudge Green award for urban design and being named ‘The Most Innovative City of the World’ in 2013 by the Urban Land Institute, Citigroup, and the Wall Street Journal. Impressively, the crime rate is now 80% lower than in 1991, and poverty has decreased by more than 96%​​.

Key Factors in Medellín’s Revival

  • Leadership Change: The transformation began in 2003 with the election of Sergio Fajardo as mayor. His administration focused on “value innovation,” creating significant improvements at low costs​​.
  • Innovative Public Transport: Medellín built the world’s first urban cable car system for public transport, repurposing ski resort chairlift technology. This system, known as ‘Metrocable,’ connects poor neighborhoods on steep hillsides to the city center, significantly improving mobility and reducing poverty and crime​​​​.
  • Urban Infrastructure: The city also constructed a 384-meter outdoor escalator system, providing quick and easy access to the city center for residents of poor hillside neighborhoods. This reduced the time for a commute that previously took up to an hour to just five minutes​​.
  • Economic and Social Programs: Medellín established entrepreneurship centers and day-care facilities in its poorest neighborhoods, supporting over 50,000 microenterprises and providing education and nutrition to children and training to local mothers​​.
  • Public-Private Partnerships and Participatory Budgeting: The city’s development has been funded through public-private partnerships, with significant contributions from local companies. Citizens are involved in selecting development projects through a participatory budgeting system, fostering a sense of community ownership and responsibility​​.


Medellín’s journey from the “murder capital of the world” to a model of urban innovation is a testament to the power of strategic planning, community involvement, and innovative thinking. By aligning value, budget, and community needs, the city has not only restored peace and safety but has also established itself as a leader in urban development and social transformation​